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Exposure to community violence and its consequences among Palestinian university students

بواسطة: Iyad Khamaysa  |  بتاريخ: 2014-04-08 ، الوقت: 09:45:28
  • تقييم المقالة:
Introduction The current study aims at identifying the Exposure to community violence and its consequences among Palestinian university students. The Exposure Community Violence (ECV) is a multidimensional problem, and is related to several factors, and socialization on both psychological and academic outcomes. In this context, the racial socialization has been found to be a multidimensional construct.  Has identified four dimensions that were predominant in the racial socialization literature, representing the types of race-related messages and practices parents transmit to their children: cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust and egalitarianism. Cultural socialization included messages about racial or ethnic pride, providing cultural toys or books, discussing cultural heritage and history. The racial socialization provides a promotive effect with regards to certain outcomes. The racial socialization are an important factor in the developmental trajectories of African American populations. Racial socialization is a parenting process in African American families that underscores the promotion of cultural heritage and pride as well as providing youth awareness of barriers as well as effective coping strategies, and has been found to buffer the effects of racial discrimination and mental health risks in African American samples on both academic outcomes and psychological well-being.Witnessing community violence exposure, such as seeing someone threatened, attacked, wounded, or killed, has been shown to adversely affect youth development (Haj-Yahia, Leshem, Guterman, 2013; Banerjee, 2012; Brookmeyer,  Henrich,  Cohen & Shahar, 2011).   In short, exposure to community violence is associated with several characteristics similar to those seen in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), such as early behavior problems, serious criminal behavior, impulsivity, and poor anger control. However, because (ASPD) and psychopathy are distinct (although overlapping in some respects) syndromes, findings linking exposure to violence with increased aggression, the lack of jobs that pay a living wage, to the rampant drug use, to alienation and lack of hope. An individual's safety and sense of worth are determined by the respect he commands in public a deference frequently based on an implied threat of violence (Schraft, Kosson, Mcbride, 2013;Anderson, 1999). In another context, in the studies (Ramirez, 2012; Kelly, 2010) found that exposure to community violence and limited parental involvement significantly predicted attitudes towards violence cultural acceptance. Additionally, it was found that community violence significantly predicted attitudes towards violence- reactive acceptance.The adolescents develop internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors after exposure to violence; but other factors influence adolescents’ exposure and reaction to violence. physical abuse and increased parental involvement increased posttraumatic stress symptomology. Exposure to community violence and less education was found to be a predictor of arrests for violent offenses in adulthood. exposure to community violence appears to be the most  significant predictor of acceptance of violence, both culturally and reactively. Parental involvement was found to be a significant predictor of both cultural acceptance of violence and posttraumatic stress symptomology, in that less parental involvement was correlated with cultural acceptance of violence and parental involvement was correlated with increased posttraumatic stress symptomology. Exposure to community violence may also contribute to the generation of learned aggressive behaviors. The use of aggressive situational responses or adoption of weapons for self-defense could be viewed as “learned” responses, consistent with social learning theory and cultural perspectives. children quickly “learn to deal with their social environment”. In a violent environment, willingness to express toughness is often revered. Youth who understand this “code” may be more inclined to engage in assaultive behaviors or to carry a weapon such that they gain respect from their peers. and forward in underscoring the importance of race-related practices such as racial socialization in the lives of youth (Patchin, Huebner, McCluskey, Varano, Bynum, 2006; Aisenberg, Herrenkohl, 2008; Anderson, 1999). Highlight of exposure to community violence in Palestine  in the light of the cumulative knowledge of the daily practices of social institutions from this perspective the study aims at identifying the Exposure to community violence and its consequences among Palestinian university students Through the research main question (What is psycho-social consequences resulting from exposure to community violence among Palestinian university students?). In this context, Haj-Yahia, et al., (2013) indicates the big majority of the participantsPalestinian youth (87.4%) reported they had witnessed CV in their lifetimes, and 72.8% of the participants reported they had personally experienced CV during their lives. Almost all of the participants (99.1%) were exposed to at least one form of CV throughout their lives. Boys were significantly more exposed to all types of violence assessed than girls, except for hearing shots, where girls reported a higher rate of exposure (χ2 = 20.82, p < .001). In addition to the lack of studies on universities students In this context majority of these studies have examined child and adolescent populations. There has been no research as of yet, examining the relationship between exposure to community violence and academic achievement among college students, Furthermore, this specific study found that ECV was directly related to adolescents’ reporting more expulsion and suspension from school. These findings imply that the effects of ECV can be directly and indirectly related to school performance and academic achievement (Banerjee, 2012; Kennedy & Bennett, 2006). The subject gained the attention of many thinkers and researchers who decided to study this phenomenon and identify its reasons and causes. It also attracted the attention of governments, political leaders, various civil-society institutions and universities. From here, the role of the scientific research was highlighted in the study of this phenomenon, especially that violence became a wide-spread phenomenon at universities. The concern escalated when in March of 2009, a student at the Al-Quds University was murdered by a fellow student at the University. This incident triggered controversy within the members of the Palestinian society as well as within the various civil and political institutions in Palestine. Which led to the attack on the university and the students after the killing the student  in the case of a collective revenge. Will contribute to the search of the side theoretical to awareness of citizens about the dangers of community violence and the extent of its consequences on students and determine the size of the phenomenon, highlighting the violence in all its forms and risks raising the level of community awareness of the importance of a sound education methods and community awareness. from side practical is to clarify the issue of community violence with the police and demanding the confiscation of weapons, and the implementation of a comprehensive plan to combat community violence starting from schools to universities, and Work to provide social workers specialize in community violence and further the studies about the community violence on various levels. In this context, Haj-Yahia, et al., (2013) indicates that the CV is most likely to occur in urban neighborhoods, which are characterized by high concentrations of low-income families living in poor housing conditions, as well as by high rates of drug abuse, These results are consistent with the findings of Banerjee, (2012) indicate that an accumulation of risk factors or stressors such as: poverty, neighborhoods characterized by high crime, inadequate income, low parental education attainment are linked to community violence. Guttmann-Steinmetz, Shoshani, Farhan,  Aliman, Hirschberger (2011) examine how exposed to high levels of political violence, nonsecure mothers suffered from significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms compared to secure mothers, a gap that was significantly reduced under conditions of low exposure. In addition, children’s symptoms were correlated with maternal level of depressive symptoms and stress severity. In light of the situation and the social and political changes the current in Palestinian society will this aims study at identify the consequences of community violence among students of Palestinian universities,which will clarify the extent to which relation the independent variables with community violence or other in the emergence of such manifestations and trends. In addition to the risk of significant medical consequences including death, ECV has been linked with a wide array of mental health and psychosocial sequelae such as increased risk for fighting and violence perpetration (Fowler, Tompsett, Braciszewski, Jacques-Tiura, & Baltes, 2009).  
References

Aisenberg, E. & Herrenkohl, T. (2008). Community violence in context: Risk and resilience in children and      families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23, 296-315. DOI: 10.1177/0886260507312287

Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street. New York: Norton. 352 Papers, ISBN: 978-0-393-32078-7

Banerjee, M. (2012).  Testing The Moderating Effects Of Racial Socialization On The Relationship Between     Community Violence Exposure And Academic/ Psychosocial Outcomes In African American Young Adults. PH.D a  Dissertation. USA: Michigan State University.

Brookmeyer, K. A., Henrich, C. C., Cohen, G., Shahar, G. (2011). Israeli Adolescents Exposed to Community and Terror Violence: The Protective Role of Social Support. Journal of Early Adolescence, 31(4) 577– 603. DOI: 10.1177/0272431610366247

Fowler, P., Tompsett, C., Braciszewski, J., Jacques-Tiura, A., & Baltes, B. (2009). Community violence: A meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 227-259. doi:10.1017/S0954579409000145

Guttmann-Steinmetz, S., Shoshani, A., Farhan, K., Aliman, M., Hirschberger, G. (2011). Living in the crossfire: Effects of exposure to political violence on Palestinian and Israeli mothers and children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(1), 71–78. DOI: 10.1177/0165025411406861

 

Haj-Yahia, M. M., Leshem, B., & Guterman, N. B. (2013). The Rates and Characteristics of the Exposure of Palestinian Youth to Community Violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 28(11) 2223–2249. DOI: 10.1177/0886260512475309

Kelly, S. (2010). The Psychological Consequences to Adolescents of Exposure to Gang Violence in the Community: An Integrated Review of the Literature. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (JCAPN), 23 (2), 61–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6171.2010.00225.x

Kennedy, A. C. & Bennett, L. (2006). Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family and partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21 (6), 750-773. doi: 10.1177/0886260506287314

Patchin, J. W., Huebner, B. M., McCluskey, J. D., Varano, S. P., Bynum, T. S. (2006).Exposure to Community Violence and Childhood Delinquency. Crime & Delinquency, 52(2), 307-332. DOI: 10.1177/0011128704267476

Ramirez, M. M. (2012). Early Exposure To Violence And Subsequent Adult Behavior And Attitudes Towards Violence. PH.D a Dissertation, California School of Forensic Studies, Sacramento Campus. USA: Alliant International University.

Schraft, C .V., Kosson,D. V.,Mcbride, C. k .(2013). Exposure to Violence within Home and Community Environments and Psychopathic Tendencies in Detained Adolescents.  Criminal Justice And Behavior, 40 (9), 1027–1043. DOI: 10.1177/0093854813486887

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