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شوهدت ذئاب على أطراف الوديان في فرائس تتحينُ ...مرت عليها البهائم وهي تتعجب... ردت الذئاب على البهائم ، لما العجبُ لولا الفرائسُ لما وُجدت الذئابُ...   (بلقسام حمدان العربي الإدريسي) . الحياة فصول .. جلوسنا لدقائق , لا يعني إحتوائها تماما هي دقائق نتأملها ..لا غير.   (طيف امرأه) . اختصار الكلام براعة لا يجيدها كل أحد، كما أن الإسهاب فيه فن لا يتقنه إلا القلة، والعبقري من يجمع بين الحُسنين   (محمد النائل) . 

Glass historical references - qusay tariq

بواسطة: قصي طارق qusay tariq  |  بتاريخ: 2013-05-08 ، الوقت: 16:14:42
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Glass historical references
1 - the beginning of the glass industry in Mesopotamia
  Since learning human since ancient glass industry across the causes or ideas preliminary certain paid rights to be guided by the mystery of workmanship where the man knew glass natural, a volcanic glass before he guided to the glass industry a long time and glass natural (Obisidian Glass) stone colorless transparent sometimes Black or brown color similar to ordinary glass in terms of shape and capacity, however, it varies in terms of chemical composition. Glass in general is a solid and transparent are not affected by natural conditions and consists of a homogeneous mixture of pure sand or lime with the addition of a few some metal oxides

 

The information suggests that therights inMesopotamiabegan to useutensilsanda variety of materialsand differentdoes not allownormalfiltration(leather, wood and stone) in order tosavematerialsthat were used indaily lifeare knowntohavetherightssufferedandsuffered greatlywhichmakesthosestone vessels, whichthe manufacturing processiseasy andlimitedduring periodsthat preceded theappearance ofglass (Stone Age) in addition, thecopper,whichwas identifiedbypridecrockery andcollectedthe metalat the bottom ofthe oven*, because the soilthey containatoms ofthemetal, these resultsled to the identification ofcopper metalbyotherother metals, which confirms this factNeolithicmetal  ,( the era in whichithasbeenusedhumancopper),

 

 

 

 

The temperature of the furnaceforburningpotteryenoughto meltcopper metal anditscompounds
Utensils so thatthe industrytookthe biggest andimportantaspectof his life.According to informationobtained by theAgesoaeffectsand explorationthat the residents ofthe old Iraqhave usedin a certain periodMaterial Glass(Alfr Frit)for the purposes ofpaintpotteryis not identifiedonthe temperaturerequired and theevidence suggeststhat thesite(TelTaya) may beusedwhere thisarticle(Alfr ) since thelateAkkadianage. .Thissite is located inthenorth-eastern cornerofSahlSinjar-AfarMoreover,ithasalsobeenfoundonotherAntiquetexturedglazeAlfr(Frit) inthecity of Ur

 

 

Is indicated by the colorblue on thefirst attemptsthat have been madeto try tomimicthe type ofstonelapis lazulithrough themanufacture ofglassin the earlystages ofthe firsthasused this techniqueor industryto mimicthese stoneswhichis believed to havethe value andsanctitywithin thebeliefs ofprivateancient peopleswhich are stillbeing usedin the present day in the form ofnecklacesand beadsto confirmthe extent ofAlayathese stonesinhuman thought, if this industryis not limited toMesopotamia, but spread toother civilizationsabreast ofMesopotamiawhichcivilizationcountry and theNile Valleyas italso tried tomimic thosestonesthroughthe preparation ofslurrieschemicalsimilar, hasbeenQublsna(4000 BC.). Attempts to producea chemical compoundofbluelapis lazulistonecompositethat substancechemicallycommonlyreferredtoastheEgyptianporcelainName* It isafirststep

 

 

The oldmanaroundtheworldinstallthematerialthatneeds it.The blue colorof the stoneazureoutput inthe truth about thechemical compositionis complexeitherinstallation ofthe same materialchemicallyproperlynotbe recognizeduntil the nineteenth century. Has focusedfirst attemptstoproduceablue colorwhich can be obtainedfrom theCopperwhencombined withglassand showsthatearly modelsofporcelain has been manufacturedby crushingsurface(Talc-stone)and the use ofcopper ores, carbonatecopper(Blue Copper Carbonate:Alzurit) or carbonatecoppergreen(Copper CarbonateGreen:Malachite(then the process isburnedso that thesurface ofthe overallpiece of glassbluecolor.Accordingly,thethe manufacturing process of any materialor glassneed toseveral conditionsto becomethis articlearefor cuttingand shapinginto partsandformsa smallKtaaoivand beadsandsmall statueswhich are foundin different erasanda variety offindsin thegraves ofthe late stagesof the Ages, for example tomb(Tutankhamun), which was found onhis coffinmaterialsmade of glass, whichwasinherentlymimicthosegemsof thisaswellasanumberofothervitrifiedstonesfoundstone(Steatite)The oldmanaroundtheworldinstallthematerialthatneeds it.The blue colorof the stoneazureoutput inthe truth about thechemical compositionis complexeitherinstallation ofthe same materialchemicallyproperlynotbe recognizeduntil the nineteenth century. Has focusedfirst attemptstoproduceablue colorwhich can be obtainedfrom theCopperwhencombined withglassand showsthatearly modelsofporcelain has been manufacturedby crushingsurface(Talc-stone)and the use ofcopper ores, carbonatecopper(Blue Copper Carbonate:Alzurit) or carbonatecoppergreen(Copper CarbonateGreen:Malachite(then the process isburnedso that thesurface ofthe overallpiece of glassbluecolor.Accordingly,thethe manufacturing process of any materialor glassneed toseveral conditionsto becomethis articlearefor cuttingand shapinginto partsandformsa smallKtaaoivand beadsandsmall statueswhich are foundin different erasanda variety offindsin thegraves ofthe late stagesof the Ages, for example tomb(Tutankhamun), which was found onhis coffinmaterialsmade of glass, whichwasinherentlymimicthosegemsof thisaswellasanumberofothervitrifiedstonesfoundstone(Steatite).

 

 

Sothat theglass industryhas evolved ineraslater,confirmedthe textscuneiformin generalbywhatcameto us fromthe effects ofcutwoodand glassas well as throughexcavationslegitimateandillegitimateconducted ina number of countriesof Iraq andEgypt,as well asa number ofclay tabletsfull andfull and foundinformationthatwas usedglassand methods ofmanufactureand the methodusedin the industryand methodsformulatedinthe followingtranslation offreetextInscriptionmudwhich is foundin the(Telage)inSeleuciafine detailback tothe seventeenth century(BC). andpreserved inmuseumLondon, aswellasBritish

 

 

Other texts fromclay tabletsfrom the library ofthe Assyrian kingAnibalfound inNineveh (669-625 BC).Thisas well asa number of otherfound in thecity of BabylonandUr andelsewherevarietyshow usthe industry, particularly the text(K-302)the first translationappeared to him in 1909if you wantto workglass "Zaken Lord" (Zagindurû) stained,you have toheat upwell orindividuallytenmanats*of stone(Amanco - Immanakku)and fiveAshrmanatfrom the ashes(powder)plant (Naka-Naga) 2/3from the plant whitecolor, thencombinethe mixture wellputmixturein an ovencoolhas fourslotsfor the firethatmediatesmixslotsfirefour, you have to perpetuate thecampfiresmoke-freeuntil it meltsmix andmelt, then you haveto go outmix(Articlemagma) from the ovenand leave to coolandafterthatcoolAsahnhathesecondwell, and thencollectthepowderandput it in thepot)

 

 

Dbto-dabtu) ** clean, put the potin the cavityof Procedure of theovenand coolon you ifperpetuateignite thefire ofgoodand freeof smokeevenglowmixand it becomesthe coloryellowcoloredgold,then pourthe mixture ona roomheatedoven, andthis glassis called Glass(زوكو-zukû)this text shows uswaysTafratglassout of datewithin thespecial ritualsto simulatereality in whichhe liveswithin whichhumanKtkadishto the forces ofmetaphysicsor godsparticular, this type of glass(zukû)has been usedprimarilyand the Organizationforcoating processesother(glaze) on objects, crockery, in a scientificand technicalsingularlyfor thatera.

 

 

 

 

* Alastainayatisglazedquartz powderoftheoldestmaterialsknowninthepre-dynastic periodincivilizationBadari

 


 

 


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