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Definition of Orientalism/qusay tariq

بواسطة: قصي طارق qusay tariq  |  بتاريخ: 2013-04-05 ، الوقت: 17:20:36
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Definition of Orientalism Linguistic definition

 

 

 

 

 

 

If we go back to the origin of the word have seen taken from the word sunshine and then added to the three letters is the Alpha and the Seine-na, meaning the request of the light and guidance and brightness, and radiance of the east, where the three revealed religions Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Since Islam is the dominant religion became meaningless Orientalism search for knowledge of Islam and Muslims and Muslim countries theology and law, history, society and heritage ... etc..

 

 

Orientalism is the study of all the cultural structures of Eastern and Western point of view, and also used the word Orientalism to pamper tradition or portray the eastern side of civilizations among narrators and artists in the West. Latter meaning is the meaning of rare and neglected to use, and often use is the study of the East in the colonial era between the eighteenth century and nineteenth centuries. So the word of Orientalism indicate negative concept and involves harmful interpretations of ancient civilizations of East and Eastern people. This view reflected in Edward Said's book Orientalism (published in 1978).

Definition when Westerners

 

Although the term Orientalism appeared in the West two centuries ago on the disparity is simple for dictionaries various European, but it's uncertain that the search in Eastern languages ​​and religions, especially Islam, has appeared much earlier, perhaps the word Orientalist has appeared before the term Orientalism, this Arbera Arberry in Searchhim in this subject says, "and the original meaning of the term (Orientalist) was in the year 1638 one of the members of the Greek or Eastern Church" in 1691 Description Anthony Wood Anthony Wood Samuel Clarke Samuel Clarke as Orientalist notices mean that he knew some of Oriental languages​​. And Byron in his comments on the Childe Harold's Pilgrimage talking about Mr Thornton and many Elmaath function on a deep Orientalism "([1]).

 

 

According to Rudy Bart that Orientalism is "the science of specialized jurisprudence language in particular, and the nearest Shi him permission to think of the name given the word Orientalism derived from the word 'East' and the word East means bright sun, and this is Orientalism is the science of the East or the world learned the east"([2]). English orientalist depends Arbera Oxford Dictionary definition which defines orientalist as "sailing in Eastern languages ​​and etiquette" ([3]).

It Westerners who took the emergence of Orientalism and his French Orientalist Maxime Rodinson, who pointed out that the term Orientalism appeared in French in 1799 while appearing in English in 1838, and Orientalism but appeared to the need to "find a specialized branch of disciplines to study the Middle" and adds thatan urgent need for the presence of specialists to do to create magazines, associations and scientific departments ([4]).

 

 

If we moved to the Arabs and Muslims who ate this term, we find that Edward Said several definitions of Orientalism that "style of thinking is based on the excellence related to the existence of knowledge between 'East' (most of the time) and the West" ([5]). He adds glad that Orientalism is not just a political issue or field research reflects negatively different cultures and studies or institutions and not Tkdasa for a wide range of texts about the Orient ... It thus distribution of consciousness geographical texts aesthetic and scientific, economic and social and Philology ([6]). Elsewhere knows Said Orientalism that the cognitive domain or the science that reach him to the Middle orderly theme for learning and discovery and application. ([7]). Says in another place that Orientalism: a kind of projection west on the east and will rule the West to the East "([8 ]).

 

I chose Dr. Ahmed Abdul Hamid crow this definition "studies 'Academy' performed by Western disbelievers - of the book in particular - of Islam and Muslims, from various aspects doctrine, and the law, and culture, and civilization, and history, and systems, and the wealth and potential ... to distortIslam and trying to discredit Muslims in it, and misled him, and the imposition of subordination to the West to them, and try to justify this dependency studies and theories claiming scientific objectivity, and claims of racial superiority and cultural Christian West to the Muslim East "([9]). our definition of Orientalism

 

Is all that comes from Westerners and Americans produce intellectual and media and political reports and intelligence on issues of Islam and Muslims in faith, and in the law, and in the meeting, in politics or ideology or art, and we can catch Orientalism what is written Arab Christians Copts and Maronites and others who look to Islam west through the telescope, and appends researchers also published by Muslims who Ttelmzu by orientalists and adopted many of the ideas Orientalists ([10]).

Orientalism was and still cares about Eastern peoples in general, which includes India and South East Asia, China, Japan and Korea.When reviewing the activities of Orientalism, we find that these areas began to allocate special studies, such as studies Chinese or Indian studies or Japanese studies, while the original was all comprised under the term is one (Orientalism).

 

 

 

It must stop at another definition of Orientalism does not see that the word Orientalism only relate Palmcherq geographical and meant that the East is a bright sun and this significance in the sense sunrise and brightness, light and guidance unlike sunset sense decline and finish, has returned a Muslim scholars, Mr. Qusay Tariq to dictionaries European (German, French and English) for looking at the word East ORIENT found it referred to the Middle landing studies Eastern word "featuring character moral which Morgen land means the country the morning, and known that morning shines when the sun, and show this word on the shift from signified geographical astronomer to focus on meaning of the morning, which includes the meaning of light and vigilance, and in return, we use in the word Abendland language means the country the evening to show the dark and comfort "([11] it's a country where the sun shines strongly until eight in the evening.

 

In Latin means Orient: learn or looking for something, and in French means Orienter face or guided or guided, and English Orientation, and orientate means "Forward senses towards the direction or a relationship in the field of ethics or meeting or thought or literature about personal interests in the area intellectual or spiritual, "and that the first year in some universities called year prep Orientation. In German word means Sich Orientiern "gathers information (knowledge) for something ([12]).

Cancel the term Orientalism

 

We must stop when the decision-west to stop using the term Orientalism or as Lewis said that this term has thrown in the garbage of history, saw the West that this term involves loads historical negative connotations that the term no longer meets the description of researchers who specialize in the Muslim world ,The organization held two conferences under this title that was changed again to the (global conferences for Asian Studies and the North African ICANAS). Have opposed this decision Eastern Bloc countries (Russia and the countries that were taking place in its orbit) ([14]), however at the International Conference on the thirty-fifth for Asian Studies and the North African held in Budapest, Hungary was the term Orientalism and Orientalists used without any reservations, which means that Western Europeans and Americans are the most objection to this term and perhaps this to benefit contrary to talk about Orientalists to prove they are not so they are undercover Arabists or Islamists Islamists or researchers in the humanities Humanists or specialize in regional studies, social or economic specializes particular country or a particular geographical area , but our position we of this specialty or specialties it we can what expanded Westerners If they chose to leave the label there is nothing wrong of it, provided that not overlook the continuing interest in studies and writing about our issues and organize conferences and seminars and publish books and periodicals about the Islamic world and the continuation of the objectives of Orientalism, and not distract the name change awareness and attention to what they write and postings.

It is difficult to be precise about the origin of the difference between the West and the East. But the prosperity of Christianity and Islam to create a great cultural dispute between Christian Europe and the Middle and North Africa Islamic. In the Middle Ages was European Christians see Muslims as enemies their Jhenmyin. The knowledge of European civilizations farther east from the Islamic East more imaginative. But there was little knowledge of the Indian and Chinese civilizations from where he comes expensive items such as ceramics and silk. And frequently campaigns and colonial expedition became a distinction between the cultures of others is a writer, such as in Africa, the Americas, and educated writer and civilizations in the east.

In the eighteenth century, thinkers Almnoren describe sometimes aspects of Oriental civilizations better than the Christian West. For example: Voltaire promoted research and study for Zoroastrian, it supports religion rational deism best about Christianity. Others glorified religious tolerance in the Muslim Middle instead of the Christian West, or the status of science in China and the Middle general. The discovery languages ​​Hindorobeh, explained the connection between the eastern and western history old. But that discovery became in the middle of competition between France and Britain to dominate India, and discovery was related to the understanding of Colonial civilizations in order to control them easily colonized. But liberal economists such as James Miles vilified Eastern Nations. Even Karl Marx described method of manufacturing Alosaawi change Kravdh. The Christian missionaries were Atlpon Eastern religions as mere superstition.

Terminological meaning: science spend Middle issues and the study and analysis of reality, in other words: is studies that relate to the Orient. The linguistic meaning of the word (east) in English is (in English: Orient), and Eastern states called (The orient), and human-east (in English: Oriental), and each of looking at the history of the Middle and conditions the nations called (in English: Orientalist) or Orientalist.

Alphonse-Étienne Dinet Born on behalf of religious Alphonse Etienne) (March 28, 1861 - December 24, 1929, Paris) is a French Orientalist painter.

Born in Paris in 1861 m in the middle of a family bourgeoisie, his father was a judge Frenchman prominent. [1] in 1865 and born sister Jane, which will be a writer his personal, while his grandfather was an engineer, and his mother called Mary Louise Waddell daughter's lawyer

Made a successful trip to the School of Fine Arts, was able to win a medal of Arts Palace salon industry in 1884, as you get a scholarship to Algeria, a country that has previously visited in 1883. In Algeria Etienne visited each of the cities of Ouargla and Laghouat, which has affected the Algerian desert and remained there for five full years.

Upon his return to Paris in 1889, the Pickups paintings painted by city father HE at the World Expo and won a silver medal. But the impact of the Algerian Sahara not Evargah returned again to bosada that passion to stay this time where permanently, where you know more on the traditions of the region and the habits of the population and became speaks Arabic fluently, and Dive with Rafiq life Suleiman bin Ibrahim, who was a friend of his age and his colleague.

Participated in several exhibitions in Algeria, including the exhibition year 1906 AD and exhibition year 1922, became a member of important painters French present in Algeria, but Pickups was occupied love the desert and Onasha for anything else he took in travel with his friend Solomon to recognize the desert close and relationship Arab Berbers


Qusay Tariq, Orientalism, magazine art and the artist, Iraq, 2011, edition 2, Number 55, pp. 56-

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