Calligraphy(from Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty" + γραφή graphẽ "writing") is a type of visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument or brush in one stroke (as opposed to built up lettering, in which the letters are drawn.) (Mediavilla 1996: 17). A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner" (Mediavilla 1996: 18). The story of writing is one of aesthetic evolution framed within the technical skills, transmission speed(s) and material limitations of a person, time and place (Diringer 1968: 441). A style of writing is described as a script, hand or alphabet (Fraser and Kwiatkowski 2006; Johnston 1909: Plate 6).
Islamic calligraphy (calligraphy in Arabic is Khatt ul-Yad خط اليد) has evolved alongside the religion of Islam and the Arabic language. As it is based on Arabic letters, some call it "Arabic calligraphy". However the term "Islamic calligraphy" is a more appropriate term as it comprises all works of calligraphy by the Muslim calligraphers from Andalusia in modern Spain to China.
Islamic calligraphy excelled due to the forms of Arabic letters, composed of dots, lines and curves. These attributes give the artist a freedom to create. The script is functional as well as artistic and graphic, therefore even those who do not understand the writing can enjoy the sight of it.
Islamic calligraphy is associated with geometric Islamic art (arabesque) on the walls and ceilings of mosques as well as on the page. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions.
Instead of recalling something related to the spoken word, calligraphy for Muslims is a visible expression of the highest art of all, the art of the spiritual world. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam, al-Qur'an, has played an important role in the development and evolution of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and passages from the Qur'an are still sources for Islamic calligraphy.
It is generally accepted that Islamic calligraphy excelled during the Ottoman era. Turkish calligraphers still present the most refined and creative works. Istanbul is an open exhibition hall for all kinds and varieties of calligraphy, from inscriptions in mosques to fountains, schools, houses, etc.
Calligraphy big role in the development of decorative art, has for Islam, including adding to the perfected majesty and solemnity and sanctity, so that became the mastery of it and mastery it and decoration including increases its ability expressionism, was calligrapher Arab aware brilliantly how paving and compose letters accurately engineer, considered circuit unit Fine in drawing calligraphy, box unit of the line engineering, achieved their aesthetic value obtained from the contrast between the slash and horizontal lines, and the line Kufi luck galore in decking, his mission in the configuration decorative, is the result of system engineering and frilly together, and in this perception of the meaning of Space and Engineering place.
Has exceeded the written text meaning characters and inter as decoration for another meaning or may arise through the rhythmic system in spite of being readable. It is worth mentioning to note that there are several factors that have helped in the development of this type of line, including: -
1 - divine mission in the Holy Quran and the Hadith, which spread out in Arabic calligraphy expression of truth and goodness and beauty, was a calligrapher responsive trip with cultural structure.
2 - Personal Arab human Stickler heritage and originality which contained elements of natural beauty, especially in the symmetry and movement color visual in the Arab heritage, as sought this synergy towards determining personal Arab art which characterized imagination and purity and iceberg decorations, which notes in formations icon that reflects Islamic art and personal configurations are varied.
3 - endogenous capacity for Arabic calligraphy on the diversity and harmony, through the convergence of forms of characters that helped calligrapher configuration and innovation to achieve balance in the painting, vertical and horizontal, because the line holds the properties of abstract and artistic beauty bump mattress creativity.
4 - aesthetic value and alignment between words audio and spoken word when reflected on the material terms of the scale and direction of font characters, considering that industrial material (craft), and pronunciation is a natural substance.
The beauty of the calligraphy Kufi lies in suits that emerges from characters and rhythms of repetition and its communication and match movement, accuracy and fit forms, allowing configurations formalism by applying symmetry value aesthetic, as well as expression of the principle of dynamic shapes and characters remain mode to configure a state of disharmony between two worlds dimensional (static and mobile) or the world of physical entity (geometric shapes square and triangle and other shapes), these aesthetics contribute including results from normal reading of the code to read spiritual immaterial.
Persian calligraphyis the calligraphy of Persian writing system. The history of calligraphy in Persia dates back to the pre-Islam era. In Zoroastrianism beautiful and clear writings were always praised.
History and evolution
It is believed that ancient Persian script was invented by about 600-500 BC to provide monument inscriptions for the Achaemenid kings. These scripts consisted of horizontal, vertical, and diagonal nail-shape letters and that is the reason in Persian it is called "Script of Nails/Cuneiform Script" (Khat-e-Mikhi). Centuries later, other scripts such as "Pahlavi" and "Avestan" scripts were used in ancient Persia.
After the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Persians adapted the Arabic alphabet to fit the Persian language and developed a contemporary Persian alphabet. The Arabic alphabet has 28 characters to which Iranians added another four letters for it to fit the sounds and letters of the Persian language that do not exist in Arabic.
"Nasta'liq" is the most popular contemporary style among classical Persian calligraphy scripts and Persian calligraphers call it "Bride of the Calligraphy Scripts". This calligraphy style has been based on such a strong structure that it has changed very little since. Mir Ali Tabrizi had found the optimum composition of the letters and graphical rules so it has just been fine-tuned during the past seven centuries. It has very strict rules for graphical shape of the letters and for combination of the letters, words, and composition of the whole calligraphy piece.
Calligraphy Islamic website". Calligraphyislamic.com. Retrieved 2012-06-18.
V. Sabard, V. Geneslay, L. Rébéna, Calligraphie latine, initiation, ed. Fleurus, Paris. 7th edition, 2004, pages 8 to 11
Patricia lovett. Calligraphy and Illumination Abrams 2000, p.72
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