Impressionism//By: Qusay Tariq
Influential or Impressionist school
By: Qusay Tariq
Impressionist or Altathreyh (English: Impressionism) technical school is created in the nineteenth century. The movement's name is derived from the title of a painting by Claude Monet, (impression Sunrise soleil levant), which has its completion in 1872, and since it was the first to use this new method of imaging, it derives its name the new school from the name of his portrait: Impressionism. It technique in painting depends on the transfer actually Oalhaddt of nature directly and as you see the naked eye away from the imagination and Altazoik and where output artists studio and carried out their work in the open air, which invited them to accelerate the implementation of the technical work before changing position of the sun in the sky and thus alter the shade and light, and so named because they convey artist's impression of the scene viewer away from the precision and detail.
Characteristics attempt to record visual impressions changing and transfer directly from nature. The excelled Altathreyon in imaging the light of the sun, and invented outdoor photography movement began (1870) and lost many of its supporters (1880), but not famous only (1890) after being abandoned by most of its leaders. Was the most prominent pioneers of the movement: Monet, and Sazely, Pissarro, and was attended by Renoir and Deja, and called her for a short period of Cezanne and Manet. Although Altathreyh as limited visible targets doctrine did not live long, have fostered a wave of liberalization in the art. The term "Interactionism" in the music of the 19th century as well. Where reflected reflection Altathreyh on the work of Debussy "French school", as it appears to some extent in the work of Ravel and Spanish music when Falla. And called the term "after Altathreyh of a group of French photographers in the late 19th century, wanted to apply some properties Altathreyh and directed towards more subjective art. Package includes: Cezanne, Van Gogh, and Gauguin.
And tries painters Impressionist tradition of light when reflected on the surfaces of things, and investigating using oil paints in patches separate small shape and clear, rather than mixed on the palette, and the virtue of Impressionists work in the open for nature photography directly, not within the walls of the ceremony, and sometimes they were drawing the same View many times in different weather conditions, to show how they are changing colors and surface qualities at different times.
Among the most famous painters of Impressionism "Auguste Renoir" and "Paul Cezanne" Frenchmen "Renoir" showed prowess in drawing nature under light warm especially subtle changes in the climate and the impact of sunlight on objects and shapes, flowers, and this seems evident in his paintings "on the balcony" painted by in 1879. The "Cezanne" has shown understanding and appreciation of the colors in all its richness and intensity of color like a painting "dahlia flowers in a vase" in 1875.
I think Impressionists that line in the drawing of the man-made, if there is no line in nature, the colors of the publication is known as are: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red.
The colors Impressionists clean pure mean log viewer into transient and the moment a sense of the artist in the place and time one, as the artist impressionist who logs his observations and impressions in a certain period of time, as captures photographer picture of something in a particular moment of the day, I have me Altathreon filming forms under direct sunlight, particularly the moment of sunrise, which showed their paintings beautiful radiant color.
I mean Impressionist record overall shape, The exact details are not goals but registering overall impression about things, a way that suggests to the viewer that he sees parts, although it is his decree, which increases the charming and beautiful and attractive by the viewer. The advantages of Impressionism also lack of interest aspect substantive panel, with mixed forms in the painting becomes both, and that dimension in the painting takes over one, and as we mentioned Valdu in the painting are the most important elements prominent, and it is worth mentioning that Impressionism had emerged from the realism, but within the framework of various scientific, perception of reality, but colors based on scientific analysis.
Remained to recall an important aspect is the methods that have emerged in this school, if appeared methods provide the same theory, but the implementation varies from one individual to another, Valtathreh three methods:
Method Altnqaiti: a technique draw the entire painting by neighboring dots, and this method is similar to a large extent the scenes that we see on the screen color TV when the picture turns to points as a result of not adjust the antenna or after the transmitting station and adverse weather conditions.
Divisive method: This method is based on subdivision surfaces adjacent to the color palette without explicit mixing colors or Akhaltha, Valocefr is yellow, blue, red, and so the important thing is not color paints basic pure.
C - means draw shapes more than once in a changing moments of the day, if the artist paints a scene of nature in the morning, then return to the laid down in the afternoon, then laid down in the evening at sunset Definition:
Impressionist doctrine (*) literary artwork, back in the second half of the nineteenth century in France, which is a sensation, and personal impression basis in artistic and literary expression, not the rational concept of things. And due to the fact that any work of art search should pass through the same artist first, and the traffic this is the process that suggest the impression or effect that drives the artist to express it.
And leading figures:
= Launched Impressionism at the beginning of a school in the imaging believes that painter should express in strips and simplicity for the impression that he was consecrated a sensory, apart from all scientific standards, especially in the field of literary criticism, the important thing is the impression it casts light for example on the subject is not the same subject .
One of the most important figures:
- Anatole France 1844 - 1924 AD - French writer, which is leading the impression in the literature, having moved term of the graphic to the literature, and finds that the value of any literary work lies in the quality impressions left by the same reader and this impression is the only evidence being the neighborhood to work Literary.
- Antonan Proust: and is one of the most brilliant of the body of literary impressionism When he describes a scene or convey his feelings about the scene, embodied for us to impressionist painting.
Ideas and beliefs:
= As long as the value of any literary work lies in the quality of the impressions left by the same reader, the writer to put this fact in mind, because the impression is the only evidence of the living presence of the literary work.
= The artist feels or affected first, and then convey this impression or influence by the expression. Does not care about the established standards of literary criticism.
= Impressionist says: (I feel therefore I am) rather than rationality, which says on the lips of Descartes: (I think, therefore I exist).
= All knowledge not preceded by a sense of them do not work ..
= Content is not important art form when impressionist writer in the transfer of his impression of self to others.
= The outside world just a special experience, personal feelings and not an objective reality exists independently of the individual senses.
= Monetary face to Antbaian they dragged behind the literal Join impression and forgotten aesthetic value which require the presence of the art form in a literary work.
= And confessions literature and literary discourses, which led them Impressionism, where two writers express Mknunat chests, a shift to just a mirror of the writer's inner life, that they look to literature as a mere translation of self or personal biography of the writer.
= And so it has become a literary criticism and artistic taste just an expression of personal emotions and feelings raised by the work of self-literary critic.
= The difference between Impressionism formal and literary impressionism is that Impressionism formal care as (highlight outer frame), while interested in Impressionist literary substance through the influence of literary impressionist writer to the reader.
Intellectual and ideological roots:
= The modern world and the promise of selfish individual, self unethical is that introduced the doctrine of Impressionist and imposed on the individual isolation, becoming his thoughts revolve around itself, and not the world has only a set of sensory effects nervousness, impressions and psychological conditions, does not care concern in the world and repaired or change for the better.
Proliferation and places of influence:
Impressionism began in France, then spread to Europe .. It enters trend in all literary schools, where initial impression element in any work of art, but it is not everything .. Therefore ceased to exist when confined to the idea that the impression is the only goal and the raw material that make up any work of art.
It is clear from the foregoing:
That Impressionism or influential doctrine (*) literary art emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century in France, and content as the impression personal sense, serve as the basis in artistic expression and literary, so is the value of a literary work in the quality of impressions left by this work in the same reader, which requires the adoption of the writer or artist of this fact, feeling of not mind (*) and thinking, is the standard of human existence according to this doctrine, and all knowledge is not preceded by a sense of their they know is useless, and the lesson contents artwork and not form, not packaged this doctrine reform conditions people or change the world for the better. Hence the gaps moral and social development in this doctrine literary major impact on all those familiar with his production without the familiar pre-conceived those and because the artist impressionist uncommitted only vision sensory and portray what impressed the senses, even if he did not see the others, and even if opposed impressions values Semitism and led then to harm people. Edouard Manet (French Édouard Manet; 23 January 1832-30 April 1883) is a French painter is considered one of the pioneers of the Impressionist school.
Manet was born to a bourgeois family is well off his father was a successful law, has allowed him to express his views and his criticism without fear that this would lead to the loss of livelihood Unlike many other artists who were clinging Braa for their business. Dream as a child to become a naval officer, but after failing twice in the entrance exams I have to learn the art of Thomas Koter. However, some claim that his style was influenced by hopes for the work of Dutch artists and Spaniards. Reflected this vulnerability in MANET fees subjects.
His early work Gdaaly Grass and Olympia sparked considerable debate and influenced the work of some young artists who founded the Impressionist school. These businesses are, today, a milestone in the history of painting represents the beginning of modern art . As he had in Luncheon on the Grass, Manet again paraphrased a respected work by a Renaissance artist in the painting Olympia (1863), a nude portrayed in a style reminiscent of early studio photographs, but whose pose was based on Titian's Venus of Urbino (1538). The painting is also reminiscent of Francisco Goya's painting The Nude Maja (1800). Manet embarked on the canvas after being challenged to give the Salon a nude painting to display. His uniquely frank depiction of a self-assured prostitute was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1865, where it created a scandal. According to Antonin Proust, "only the precautions taken by the administration prevented the painting being punctured and torn" by offended viewers. The painting was controversial partly because the nude is wearing some small items of clothing such as an orchid in her hair, a bracelet, a ribbon around her neck, and mule slippers, all of which accentuated her nakedness, sexuality, and comfortable courtesan lifestyle. The orchid, upswept hair, black cat, and bouquet of flowers were all recognized symbols of sexuality at the time. This modern Venus' body is thin, counter to prevailing standards; the painting's lack of idealism rankled viewers. The painting's flatness, inspired by Japanese wood block art, serves to make the nude more human and less voluptuous. A fully dressed black servant is featured, exploiting the then-current theory that black people were hyper-sexed. That she is wearing the clothing of a servant to a courtesan here furthers the sexual tension of the piece. Olympia's body as well as her gaze is unabashedly confrontational. She defiantly looks out as her servant offers flowers from one of her male suitors. Although her hand rests on her leg, hiding her pubic area, the reference to traditional female virtue is ironic; a notion of modesty is notoriously absent in this work. A contemporary critic denounced Olympia's "shamelessly flexed" left hand, which seemed to him a mockery of the relaxed, shielding hand of Titian's Venus. Likewise, the alert black cat at the foot of the bed strikes a sexually rebellious note in contrast to that of the sleeping dog in Titian's portrayal of the goddess in his Venus of Urbino. "Olympia" was the subject of caricatures in the popular press, but was championed by the French avant-garde community, and the painting's significance was appreciated by artists such as Gustave Courbet, Paul Cézanne, Claude Monet, and later Paul Gauguin. As with Luncheon on the Grass, the painting raised the issue of prostitution within contemporary France and the roles of women within society References to expand:
- Comparative Literature, d. Mohammed Ghanimi Hilal - House of Culture - Beirut.
- The entrance to the modern literary criticism, d. Mohammed Ghanimi Hilal - Cairo 1959.
- Impressionist, written by Maurice Sirolla - translation Henry Zugheib - Oweidat publications.
- Literary schools of classical to the absurd, d. Nabil Ragheb - Library of Egypt.
- Aesthetic criticism, André Richard - translation Henry Zugheib (Simply the series).
- Aesthetic anarchist, Andre Rstzlr - translation Henry Zugheib (Simply the series).
- Impressionist art, Morris Sirolla - (Simply the series).
- J. Leymarie, L'Impressionmisme. Paris 1959. 2 Vol.
- G. Moore, Modern Painting, London - New York - 1893. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89douard_Manet
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