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اسقيني كاس من رحيق ذكرى وجودك ... لا تتركيه يجف ،كلما جف الكأس ازداد الحنينُ...و لا يطفي شعلة الفؤاد سوى كأس الحنين...   (بلقسام حمدان العربي الإدريسي) . 

Qusay Tariq /Abstract expressionism and Archil Gorki

بواسطة: قصي طارق qusay tariq  |  بتاريخ: 2013-03-27 ، الوقت: 17:18:46
  • تقييم المقالة:

 

Appeared stream abstract expressionism and flourished in the United States against the backdrop of grim facts and historical events related impacts heavy on lifestyle and trends of cultural activity. Was at the forefront of those facts and events recession U.S., and the policy of the New Deal, and it was World War II and the results of the Allied victory over Axis powers and the defeat of Nazism and fascism, as well as solutions era atomic weapons and the specter of hell largest. and because the United States was the center of this battle, it was these events impact on the situation of intellectual and cultural and trends which necessitated the intellectuals attention to the need to confront the challenges of time and the resolution of difficult choices in the midst of a comparison between what is happening overseas and what it is like inside the country able lever to the banner of freedom and independence and cultural openness and tolerance humanitarian. "() (was at the forefront of those intellectuals open to the outside world and predisposed to cultural integration, a total of Fine active in New York included not de Konnenk, Mark Rothko, Hans Hoffman, Jackson Pollack, Ed Reinhard, Adolf Ktalp, Barnett Newman, Robert Motherwell, Philip Kesten, Franz Klein, and others who assembled not only the activity and enthusiasm cultural, but similarities spontaneous unplanned or expected in tactics technical and theses intellectual, especially in the field of philosophy configuration and technical understanding of aesthetic painting. has helped this convergence arbitrary transform "village Chrinuoj", (the neighborhood small in the heart of New York, to focus cultural radiation renewal and to advocate change. Thus During the second half of the forties focused activities and organized ideas and met with individual efforts Independent the fused in one pot and crystallize in art movement renovated encouraged and paid to the forward presence elite of the brightest artists and intellectuals of Europe who settled in New York after fleeing from the hell of war, such as Andrei Britten, Mark Hachal, Marcel Duchamp, Fernand Leger, Piet Mondrian, Max Ernst, Jean Crum Andre Mason, Jack Bashtz, Roberto Matta, Yves, and others. addition to the experienced New York from climate embroidered colors World Cultures embodied performances and seminars, lectures and exhibitions of original works in Cubism, brutality and Dada and Surrealism along with exhibitions of local Latin and arts historical Asian and fungal African . was critic Robert Coates had invented the name "abstract expressionism" to release him on movement Fine new American reality, and that in his review of the exhibition artist Hans Hoffman in 1946 which he described Maamtaz by this trend through a series of business extended its production of mid-thirties to mid-forties     (And critic (Edward Lucie Smith) that abstract expressionism is the first art movements great during the postwar and rooted in Surrealism, which is the most important movements period before the war have passed Surrealism Baldadih in Paris in the early twenties and perhaps the best definition of it is what he saidpioneered (Andre Breton) in gallery surreal first in 1924 when he said: Surrealism is the mechanism sentimental exclusive by which an attempt to express either verbally or in writing or by any other means which real business of thought ... you Surrealism on faith reality of certain forms neglectedlink within the force infinite dream within realization intellectual who does not care about one which tends to destroy mechanisms sentimental other and establish itself replaced in solving the problems of major life was surreal since its inception in 1924, led by Breton Revolutionary one vagaries and increasing interest owners of the school Surrealism significantly links to communismThe question can you reconcile artistic extremism with political diversity? lost effort and drowned art movement with the advent of the war  

 

 

 

In light of this, we find that these artists and found there is fertile land which flourished tactics and influenced the U.S. in drawing currents, the fact that a new country America encourages shapes and modernity. And its unbroken history rooted not looking for artistic heritage or traditions inherited as Academy schools in Europe: Sulaid School in England or Buzar in France, or the Academy of Florence in Italy. While flourished modern art, perhaps clearly the largest, in the most capitalist societies in the world, the practice of democracy was born in artists a sense of unease grew steadily with the perception that they are not only producers of goods fueling market luxurious, goods price depends exorbitant her meeting on scarcity "() . (and the new situation is consistent with the idea of ​​incorporation that artist it was the first that started here and did not preceded by a ". artist pleased to be his offspring Taatloh, but rejects the presence of the ancestors of his predecessors to this extent at least the self as he wanted Sartre" () Vtmizat School New York and its artists stream abstract expressionism to force  and movement automatic unconscious. knew sometimes "deprivation lyrical and known sometimes other mechanism (Automatism) to avoid surveillance rationality, or areata, a reference to Tratih shaped spots appear on the surface of the painting; also called, especially in America name ((Artist abstract creates theme inspired shades and not of the surroundings, and it found that the Russian artist originally considered American artist Archil Gorky (Armenian origin) founder of the School of abstract expressionism, if we go back to the beginning we see that generator Gorky in one of the villages of Armenia in 1902 and 1905 played a key rolein Maigueth color, emigrated to New York in 1915, was born as Vosdanig Aduaan between 1902 and 1905 (but most likely remain in 1904, Gorky himself gave different dates for Thumbnail-old) in the region Armenian which was then known as Ottoman Turkey, for this period,

 

 

Russia, adopted later fame 'Gorky' named after the revolutionary writer Maxim Gorky), amid the chaos and lack of food at the time, and his mother died of hunger, and eventually, he and his sister to his father in the United States,

Based on his experience terrible this, the business group is abstract notably Nskhta his portrait (mom and I) between 1926-1936 and 1926-1942, derived These paintings are clearly of Picasso, although they are still Thrkan feelings, and it appears that they will come on from somewhere else differs for sexual and psychological development is completed and Multiform for antiques art created by Gorky in the field of abstract expressionist art ..., leaving work, were all as tears shed on canvas paintings, in search of the tomb of his mother, who does not know his place,

Influenced by Gorky authorship Cubism, with ideas of Surrealism, the stripping forms of nature that can be seen in the fees Miro and work Hans Arp Hans Arp and simplified, and also affected Btgredat Kandinsky which did not explain the outside world, but is the music and the need for internal, not aims in its transmitted nature to transfer them directly, but wanted to incite his imagination and transform painting to express his tragedy screen psychological,

Used in his childhood making Clay Figurine of the soldiers, and was painted trees, animals and flowers on the eggs, in 1919, he left for Yerevan Yerevan heading to Tbilisi Tbilisi Tbilisi and then Athens and Italy, and in February 1920 arrived to America where he settled until the end of his life,

In the United States, and always did art lessons for a year, then worked in a factory for leather, and in 1922 was invited to one of the Boston schools to teach art, and after the work is designed theatrical scene Majestic in Boston, go Gorky to New York in 1926, and studied at the Central School Arts and rented a studio II in 1930, where it has implemented fee mural at the airport in New York, and participated in the same period in the shows individually and collectively, were the work of Gorky first representative, but moved gradually since 1930 to abstract expressionism, has studied the work of Cézanne Cézanne and Picasso Picasso and tried drawing like them, and he continued his training with Kandinsky Kandinsky, Miro Miro, Matta Matta, holistic and did not develop his style until the beginning of 1940,

The youngster arrived in America blaming wounds that wanted to get rid of them by learning drawing, strange that the first thing he did when he started to draw attention to his work, is building a name technically Russia inspired name Russian writer Maxim Gorky, and was probably caused him from its original name he felt that he holds his bad luck, the Gaderhm head of the family in order to secure work in America after a drought hit agricultural land in Armenia, but the father forgot the family left behind in the village was located under Ottoman control, did not send its request, after five years on his departure, got massacres which displaced the little boy with his mother and sisters three and dispersed them in several places, to be met in the section Soviet Armenia once again, did not take long until the charges hunger and extreme cold body of the mother debilitating, later, with the help of a relative who facilitated his access to America with one of his sisters, he met Faustinic Manug Aduaan his father, but their relationship did not develop at all to the intimate relationship between a father and son,

He stayed some time with relatives in Watertown, Massachusetts, and then with his father, who settled on the island of receipt, in 1922 lived in Watertown and studied at the New School for Design in Boston, in 1925 moved to New York and changed his name to Archil Gorky, entered the school large central to the art of New York as a student, but soon became a teacher of drawing, and since 1926 and until 1931 was a member of the university, and during the twenties of the twentieth century, in 1930 the paintings Gorky among works of art are displayed in the Museum of Modern Art in New York, and in the thirties combined with its Bstuart Davis, and William de Kooning, John Graham, then de Kooning participated in the studio at the end of the same decade, first personal exhibition was held to Gorky at the Mellon Gallery.

 

Vladlivia in 1931, and since 1935 to 1937 work within the federal art project  "AWB" and completed a mural for Newark, and continued dealings with this project until 1941,

Russian artist originally Archil Gorky (1904-1948) painter who lived his life as if it were a mirror of the past did not live it as he wants, when Gorky came to the United States, immigrants, accompanied by his father, the boy was not sad Armenian exceeded sixteen years of age, was his mother, who loved her as did not like anyone else in his life, and one of the million Armenians went victims massacres Turkish in 1915, after immigrating compulsory those five years settled the case in 1925 in New York, the day just invented name made famous by (Archil Gorky), The (Faustinic Adoyan) is his real name has been forgotten, its new name is a combination of nominal hero myth Greek and novelist Russian origin, that mix will find an impact in all that he left this artist fees and memories of life tragically short ended Pantharh It represents: Episode most important between Surrealism European and subsequent), (and perhaps his statement represents the philosophy of art motor American says, "When we complete the work of something that means he became as dead right? I believe eternity: So not completed drawing never, I love drawing because it is something not told end Absolutely, sometimes, busy working on fifteen or twenty pieces at the same time, I do it because I want to do, because I like to change my thoughts repeatedly, but what is important is to continue drawing, and non-completion of the drawing), although Gorky had been influenced by (Miro) in its forms, but I find it a distinctive expressive style surreal in its fragmented forms that resemble hands, legs and breasts and claws processed lines accurate and transparent colors solvent by turning technique oil paints to watercolor technique),

The man was haunted by the memory remained fresh despite the bleak, a memory that has been inspired by its light from a picture of his mother ... Is the owner of dreams magic was its forms flying in space does not leave Johraazeltha, an isolation experienced Gorky, I gave people the genius that stealth opportunity eavesdropping on the world of childlike still mixes Chorales religious forces of nature hacks, fees were Gorky pictures of dreams unfinished dreams are personifications Optimal Bdahat live can not be restored only by beauty, a beauty not recognize him only a live event courtyard, we use it to approach the idea of ​​life was possible to live, but it did not materialize, forms Gorky flowing and lines that not only including legacy of the impact but suggest lives short term, as if they imitate Balafrahh make us feel that there is something physical on the way to disappearing as possible completed easily by sight, was the most solid in the early planning, and more aware of his craft, while revealing his drawings late, which is the title glory , for his involvement in the crying necessary).

The art feature may fit much Nations specific terms of the characteristics ethnological or even characteristics Asiologih the sense that it may find genera is able to absorb the art scene or draw creative process them and this fully applies to the Armenian people is technically the people has been a tool for the dissemination of artistic values ​​beautiful as recipe traveling and learning the most important qualities of art in the nineteenth century and the twentieth century, and so is this Almerthal people above the body of the earth to escape the injustice and political oppression of the most important people that fueled the veins of the art in this era,

With these words began Francois Gregor French with Armenian assets his speech at the opening of the Armenian part of the artist great that there are fully convinced of all technical departments that Archil Gorki is the missing link in the circle of abstraction in the twentieth century so that Gorky without exaggeration, the most important of Kandinsky in some colorimetric analysis but we find that Gorky Although find the Tgeredejh own had also directed art about art is far from the mystery because it was considered abstraction feature for private audiences, not all recipients, not Gorky is the first artist Armenians know this momentum of artistic sense because Armenians after heavy Ottoman Empire displaced after committing them of carnage left Armenians to different countries and their presence more in the Arab region, where they had made great strides in the development of art in the Arab world do not deny that most paintings famous religious in Egypt, which was notorious publications at the end of the 19 th century and the beginning of the century Twenty were artists Armenians unknown and we can not deny that art famous like Alkrotesc or what is known as the art of caricature has entered into Egypt and then the Arab press by artists Armenians such as Sheikh caricature in Egypt missiles, and it Vajtmaa twenty paintings of rare and scattered in museums of the world as well as thirty drawing suitable for evaluation, although we do not differentiate between the plates painting and drawing, even to look recent like paintings incomplete its approach raises the border between the expression line and expression Article melanocytes, especially to his studies in Boston and New York were special drawing industrial, can not be considered Asamia Flohath private drawing industrial, cannot be considered Asamia Flohath communicative suck nectar number of us artists, from Picasso and the end of Juan Miro has Gorky curious authentic him Pettmisah technical turns Aligned to acquisitions, and arrive in style to synthesize authentic East Armenian and the West, within the event medium between abstraction and significance of natural , so silence his as the last episodes of surrealism, and the evidence is that André Breton writer and preacher surreal feet booklet exhibition first in 1945 thorough in explaining the association intuitively and subconscious, and here lies the misunderstanding critics of the characteristics of his art and his role founding in New York, is the founder inherent to stream abstract expressionism and form early since forties, is extracted school in the sixties after the Second World War a contemporary monbole in central Paris to New York, and the emergence of stars of this trend from his friend William Dukwunenning then Rotko and Pollock,

 During this period became aware Bamahtervat contemporary, collected art there proves that the role of art totalitarian U.S. most of affiliation Armenian, and if the National Art there depends on the form the basis of the beliefs Saroyan color in Yerevan we will not find the imprint continuation of this teacher in renovations Gorky, regarded as the founder and Major authentic for abstract expressionism, which extended aged abstraction lyric which wilted and coordinated since the sixties in Paris and Rome, with the Critics argue that unit colors and Orchestra distribute radioactive, linked rope navel Mcherqath Armenian, you begin misunderstanding critics of authenticity genius modernist of comparison always work French surreal André Masson, at least through the approach to stand in the way at the end average between abstraction and natural significance, and then edit the line ailing surreal spaces and what is happening in the painting maps? This approach abusive because of superficial and consumer approach Mason and Halzonyate dipped meanings literary, Bads Gorky, which is language Fine quality have nothing to do but from afar equivalent music and so the impact of Kandinsky also invested approach Joan Miro in astronomical expression, and Nsbah vacuum, Gorky holding Pflk these configurations always through the black hole that holds the painting from top reminding hole black astronomer who discovered Einstein, inspired crowds forms of body members fertility plant or animal, seems like a forest of nails melted, floats on the vacuum misty Sial transparent, fueled by gradually color opposite: warm and cold bright , and within the curriculum complicated subject to demolition and construction at each station, so you may be drawing boards shorthand way closer to the painting ended compared paintings colorful, no doubt that the impact of his approach reached beyond the border, from sculpture Italian to Sudaimyat Van Field, is what explains that His paintings - on Mitaveziqitha affected Bshirako - unrelated to surrealism, due not to give Gorky right to his grandmother before his time, and the inability of critics to insights into his world Almghaz track changes despite unit sensibility, so it was described subjective and introverts method, in contrast to spread its influence, If the Gorky has shifted in the past few experienced after World War into one of the most important symbols of "New York School" that engulfed drawing stripped taken oriented expressive, it at the same time under turning back, where the painting that did not end them only in 1936 , and had begun painted seven years ago, a painting that collects his mother, was puzzle passion missing and Wounded lies there, in the painting make sure Gorky it may sate expressive imagination, where became the mightily then be free of all desire in the diagnosis, but did not get rid never desire to express motherly tenderness, though taken that expression baffling formality character abstraction, was the mother's womb pursued most forms invented by, which forms not been to rigidity Blida onion, but Chi softness and fragility and Ekovha on what they contain memories of child tearful if an Gorky in all stages of life,

 


Qusay Tariq. Abstract expressionism. Book, Baghdad, 2010, edition 1, Baghdad, Sun Press.

Pp. 5-20

 

Qusay Jassim Tariq
vMaster / Academy of Arts / Drawing Branch
vwrote a book entitled Art and the war

Wrote Dictionary of Iraqi artists called the Iraqi artist from A _Z.

The thirdbook published this year, the school abstract expressionism U.S.
the recipient of several awards for shows thou hast set
took first prize in the exhibition through the beauty ... Society Alcklin given me Shafiq al-Mahdi and a group of artist
Prize winner at the Ishtar.


« المقالة السابقة ... المقالة التالية »
  • قصي طارق qusay tariq | 2013-03-27
    Qusay Jassim Tariq
    vMaster / Academy of Arts / Drawing Branch
    vwrote a book entitled Art and the war

    v Wrote Dictionary ofIraqi artists called the Iraqi artist from A _Z.

    vThethird
    bookpublished this year, the school abstract expressionism U.S.
    v the recipient of severalawards for shows thou hast set
    v took first prize in theexhibition through the beauty ... Society Alcklin given me Shafiq al-Mahdi anda group of artist
    v Prize winner at theIshtar.

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